Sep 05

1 The retractions came only a few months after BioMed Central.

It is therefore no real surprise that the most inventive ways to video game the peer-review system to get manuscripts released have come from China. The companies mentioned above offering fake peer evaluations all come from China and countries in Southeast Asia, & most of the authors involved with these full cases result from the same areas. But it will be a mistake to look at this as a Asian or Chinese issue. The problem is the perverse incentive systems in scientific publishing. So long as authors are rewarded for publishing many content articles and editors are rewarded for publishing them quickly, new means of gaming the traditional publication versions will be invented quicker than new control steps could be put in place..The researchers established 15 metrics that may be compared to individual swallowing function. These metrics include functions such as swallow rate, pharyngeal transit time – the right time it requires liquid to become swallowed through the pharynx , or throat, and in to the esophagus, or food tube – and the real number of ineffective swallows through the esophagus. The researchers found that healthful maturing mice develop symptoms of swallowing impairment that carefully resemble the impairments seen in older adults: generally slowed swallowing function, impaired tongue function, bigger size of the amount swallowed and an increase in the time it takes liquid to visit through the throat to the stomach.